TU || Flax Golden Tales || Four Levels of Interpretation Lesson 24

Level: B.A/ B.B.S || Lesson 24 Life Without Chiefs (Marvin Harris USA 1927-2001)

Words Meaning

Chief = main person, head

Nomadic = wandering and hunting

Noticeable = remarkable

Ancestors = forefathers

Evolution = growth

Exterminate = wipe out

Analogues = similar

Paramount = highest quality

Reciprocal = mutual

Bailiffs = law officer

Mar = spoil

Prevail = exist

Repugnant = quarrelsome

Equitable = suitable

Grudge = complain

Dispute = argument

Hammock = hanging bed

Rule out = exclude

Vie = compete

Compensate = to give something in return

Lavish = generous

Inferior = junior

Vow = promise

Momentum = a time of great activity

Expedition = journey

Abundant = sufficient

Canoe = boat

Slaughtered =killed

Rumbling = shaking

Recur = happen

Rudimentary = provisional

Sumptuous = luxuriously

Kin = relative

Harbinger = for runner

Sovereinghty = supremacy

Embankment = a big wall

Rubble = broken

Annihilation = complete destruction

Insignia = symbol

Primordial = ancient

Lust = sexual desire

Sheriff = officer

Consecration = pure

Communal = collective

Territory = area

Mumihood = mother hood

Essence = gist

Flourished = bloomed

Crib = imitate badly

Alignment = agreement

State = not fresh

Billionaires = rich people

Summary

The essay “Life without Chief” was written by Marvin Harris, an American professor of anthropology. The writer says, in the past people were not divided into different groups higher and lower classes. There weren’t rich and poor. In the primitive stage of human existence people lived in hunting. People were generous. They used to help each other sharing whatever they found in the jungle. They didn’t thank the giver. The giver wouldn’t be proud for what he gave others. The study made by Robert Dentan among Semai of central Malaysia revealed that expression of thanks for receiving something would be considered rude.

Similarly, Ricard Lee tells a similar experience he had among the bushman of the Kalahari desert and he knew that they didn’t praise any donor because it would make him think superior than others. There wasn’t ruling or ruled class, the group would leave the person to rule over the area alone there and they used to move to another place. They also used to have a headman but he didn’t use to compel others to obey his commands. Instead he used to do hard work to set examples. Everyone had equal rights over natural resources. But later on people competed to become a headman by giving feasts. They society divided into chief and commoners. But gradually the chiefs became more selfish in the forms of kings and emperors.

Four Levels of Interpretation

  1. Literal Comprehension

The essay “Life without Chief” was written by Marvin Harris, an American professor of anthropology. The writer says, in the past people were not divided into different groups higher and lower classes. There weren’t rich and poor. In the primitive stage of human existence people lived in hunting. People were generous. They used to help each other sharing whatever they found in the jungle. They didn’t thank the giver. The giver wouldn’t be proud for what he gave others. The study made by Robert Dentan among Semai of central Malaysia revealed that expression of thanks for receiving something would be considered rude.

Similarly, Ricard Lee tells a similar experience he had among the bushman of the Kalahari desert and he knew that they didn’t praise any donor because it would make him think superior than others. There wasn’t ruling or ruled class, the group would leave the person to rule over the area alone there and they used to move to another place. They also used to have a headman but he didn’t use to compel others to obey his commands. Instead he used to do hard work to set examples. Everyone had equal rights over natural resources. But later on people competed to become a headman by giving feasts. They society divided into chief and commoners. But gradually the chiefs became more selfish in the forms of kings and emperors.

  1. Interpretation

This text tries to show how kind people were there in the past and how they enjoyed freedom. The writer writes about development of human civilization. He says that in the past there wasn’t social division but gradually chiefs became cruel and compelled people to obey them that divided the society into different social groups.

  1. Critical thinking

The writer shows that there was complete freedom in the past. People used to live in the group of 30 to 40 and share whatever they got or produced. There were not social division. The chiefs used to be popular by doing hard work but is difficult to believe that how they used to settle their disputes. It is not mentioned that how chiefs were made.

  1. Assimilation

After reading text, learnt that human beings should share happiness and sorrow with others. If we share our products like hunting and gathering societies, nobody will die of hunger. The chiefs must do something for common people so that common people will learn something from their chiefs.

TU || Flax Golden Tales Lesson 23

NEB || Important question paper of Computer Science Class 12

TU || Exam paper 2074 of English 314, 304 Poetry

For Educational Discussion visit here:

NepStudy @ MeroPaper

Comments

comments

Hemant

Hemant Chaudhary is an student 19 years old. He is interested in Hacking, Blogging,coding. He like to Visit new Places and make new Friends. He used to Learn His web works From Friends and Currently is is CEO and Founder of Meropaper and meroreview.com