Keeping Errors At Bay || Four Levels of Interpretation || Flax Golden Tales

Level: B.A/ B.B.S || Lesson 39 Keeping Errors At Bay (Bertrand Russell, England 1872-1970)

Words Meaning

Errors = wrong doing

Avoid = to remove

Proned = habituate

Keep at bay = keep an enemy at a distance

Genius = extraordinary

Device = mean

Fatal = harmful

Cautious = alert

Passionate = filed with keen desire

Evidence = proof

Undo = destroy

Conviction =belief

Prejudice = bias

Beneficial = profitable

Conviction = judgement

Savage = wild

Persecution = punishment

On guard = alert

Diminish = disappear

Insular = narrow minded

Conquer = win

Shook off = got rid of

Cosmos = universe

Deplored = hated

Prevail = be wide spread

Refutation = certain

Self-esteem = self-respect

Abundant = enough

Insoluble = that can’t be solved

Persuade = convince

Trivial = mean

Pursuit = search

Episode = a part of event

Savage = barbaric

Conceal = hide

Endeavor = great effort

Vague = unclear

Terror = fear

Refutation = refusal

Summary

Here, Bertrand Russell describes a few rules for avoiding errors or foolish opinions from our mind. There is no need to dispute if we can observe the things, we should observe the things, rather than arguing over the problem. He gives an example of Aristotle who said that women have fewer teeth. If he had observed the teeth of his own wife, there wouldn’t be dispute. So Russell says that we should make observation ourselves. Dispute can be solved by observation.

Secondly he says that if there is no possibility of observation, we should compare our ideas with opponents. If same opinions make us angry, it means we have no reasons to support our own ideas. In such case, be alert you are weak or you have weaknesses. If you are certain that two and two makes four, you would feel pity on the person who opposes you. That is why persecution is used in theology because there isn’t any good evidence unlike in arithmetic.

Similarly, Russelll says that we can remove wrong beliefs or prejudice form our mind by traveling, meeting and talking with many people. We can also read the opposite party’s papers. This helps us to remove wrong beliefs from our mind. It will refine our beliefs. But we shouldn’t copy the foreigner’s foolish customs.

Imaginary conversation can take place with someone who is far from us in terms of time and space. We can talk to our imaginary opponents in our own mind. Then we can become less dogmatic by changing our minds.

Similarly, he says that we should keep free form fear which is the common source of error. Fear doesn’t allow us to think about many important things. According to the writer, to conquer fear is beginning of wisdom in the pursuit of truth. Fear generates superstitions.

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Four Levels of Interpretation

Literal Comprehension

This text was written by Bertrand Russell who was awarded Nobel Prize for literature. Here, Bertrand Russell describes a few rules for avoiding errors or foolish opinions from our mind. There is no need to dispute if we can observe the things, we should observe the things, rather than arguing over the problem. He gives an example of Aristotle who said that women have fewer teeth. If he had observed the teeth of his own wife, there wouldn’t be dispute. So Russell says that we should make observation ourselves. Dispute can be solved by observation.

Secondly he says that if there is no possibility of observation, we should compare our ideas with opponents. If same opinions make us angry, it means we have no reasons to support our own ideas. In such case, be alert you are weak or you have weaknesses. If you are certain that two and two makes four, you would feel pity on the person who opposes you. That is why persecution is used in theology because there isn’t any good evidence unlike in arithmetic.

Similarly, Russell says that we can remove wrong beliefs or prejudice form our mind by traveling, meeting and talking with many people. We can also read the opposite party’s papers. This helps us to remove wrong beliefs from our mind. It will refine our beliefs. But we shouldn’t copy the foreigner’s foolish customs.

Imaginary conversation can take place with someone who is far from us in terms of time and space. We can talk to our imaginary opponents in our own mind. Then we can become less dogmatic by changing our minds.

Similarly, he says that we should keep free form fear which is the common source of error. Fear doesn’t allow us to think about many important things. According to the writer, to conquer fear is beginning of wisdom in the pursuit of truth. Fear generates superstitions.

Interpretation

Russell wants to show our weaknesses. He wants to convey some rules of avoiding our wrong beliefs from our mind. He says that we must know the truth facts or surrounding. We shouldn’t have over high opinion of ourselves. If we consider ourselves great not listening others’ opinions, we are not good. We should listen to those people who oppose our idea. Similarly, he says that one becomes angry, when he/ she doesn’t have reasons to support his ideas.

Critical Thinking

The writer says that one should observe the things; one should visit or meet different people to know the truth and one should make imaginary conversation but these all are not possible for common people. To some extent Russell’s ideas are good to broaden our mind.

Assimilation

After reading this text I learnt that we can avoid our dogmatic beliefs by travelling and meeting different people and places. Similarly, there shouldn’t be fear in one’s mind to make our mind creative. Fear forces people say wrong things. I also learnt that I should observe the things and listen to others to know the truth.

Possible Question

  1. What valuable suggestion are fronted by B. Russell to avoid common errors in thinking?

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Hemant

Hemant Chaudhary is an student 19 years old. He is interested in Hacking, Blogging,coding. He like to Visit new Places and make new Friends. He used to Learn His web works From Friends and Currently is is CEO and Founder of Meropaper and meroreview.com