Rapid Population growth is a major obstacle of development in developing countries like Nepal. High population growth creates different economics and non-economic problems in the country. Rapid population growth also known as population explosions destroys the economic and social structure in the economy. Therefore, population is a perpetual challenge to developing countries like Nepal. High population growth has been the cause of many social economic problems in Nepal Which are discussed below:
High Population growth creates the food scarcity in the economy. The Food production cannot increases in population. Due to this a large number of people have been suffering from food every year. The people of hilly and mountain regions of Nepal Frequently face the problems of famine and starvation as well.
Problems of unemployment is increasing with the increase in population of Nepal. Employment oppournities cannot increase as population increases consequently unemployment is increasing. Which may be the cause of soical and politicial instability. The size of active labour force increases by four lakh every year in Nepal. But the creation of New employment oppournities are very few. Due to this reason, unemployment is highly increasing with increase in size of popultion.
When population increases, its pressure highly falls on the forest resources. Increased population destroy the Forest in order to fulfill the requirements. High growth rate of population is one of the major causes of deforestation in Nepal.
4.Shortage of basic goods and services
Highly increased population needs different types of basic goods and services such as safe drinking water, sufficient health and education services, sanitation, security etc. Growing demand for these goods and services especially in the urban and terai belt in Nepal, high pressure falls to the government and most of the budget will spend in regular expenditure. The government in unable to fulfill all the facilities to the increased population. Due to this, different social problems arise.
Rapid growth of population is one of the major factors for the environment pollution in the urban areas of Nepal. The over utilization of natural resources of the country has created the problems of environmental pollution. pollution of air,land,water,sound etc are all around the country and more serious in city areas. Highly increased population may spoil the whole ecological system of our government.
6. Mass poverty
Poverty also increases with the increase in population . High growth population reduces the scope of employment opportunities in Nepal. Therefore, level of income, saving and investment decrease in the country. people should face the problem of hand to mouth because of their low income level. A large number of people in the rural areas as well as in the urban areas are forced to survive in deprived situation under the pressure of mass poverty.
7.Slow growth in per capita income
Per capita income is the national income divided by the total population of the country. When the increase of population is higher, the growth rate if GDP is lower. This gap between population growth and GDP growth will be wider resulting in slow growth rate of per capita income. As a result, the per capita income of Nepal is US772$ despite the continuous efforts to improve the situation by the government.
8. Fragmentation on land
In the Nepalese society, father’s property is divided between sons and daughters. Therefore, increase the number of child fragments the fatness land into many pieces. This fragmentation of land leads to decrease in productivity of land because it is difficult to apply modern technology in the small size of land.
Remedial Measures of High population Growth
Rapid population growth is the major obstacles of economic development in the country. It creates not only national problems but also a family and individual problems. It creates not only national problems but also a family and individual problems. It hurdles the economic growth and reduces the standard of living of people. Hence, it is essential to control the growth of population. The Following remedial measures can be taken to control the rapid population growth of Nepal.
1. Spread of education
Many people are uneducated in Nepal. Illiterate and uneducated people have no knowledge about the family planning and the advantage of small family. By implementation of proper education, awareness programmers to people they know about the family planning and advantages of small famil. Hence, population can be controlled by the spread of education. Female education helps to reduce fertility rate. Hence, the Government should give priority to education to control population especially to the women.
2.Increase health services
Adequate and qualitative health services reduces the child mortality rate. This encourages the people to have fewer children. The expansion of health facility especially in the rural areas reduces the birth rate automatically. Hence,basic health services should be extended adequately to the rural areas to control population.
3.Providing sufficient family planning services
For the effective control of population, family planning services should be extended sufficiently in the rural areas of Nepal. The permanent and temporary devices of family planning services should be adequately made available either force of cost or at nominal cost. Sufficient supply of contraceptive devices will be very helpful to control population.
4.Control in international migration
Especially immigrants from India and Tibet are the major cause if rapid population growth in Nepal. Hence, there should be control in open border. The illegal and uncontrolled foreign migration should be checked by the government to control population growth.
Women constitute a strong part of nation a strong part of nation for the overall development. But the condition of women is not satisfactory in the Nepalese society. Women’s are highly dominated as well as exploited by men mostly rural women are illiterate,backward and ignorant in many respects. Hence, efforts should be made to raise the social and economic status of women. Creation favorable condition to women delays the marriage and lower fertility. Proper education and employment opportunities to women decrease the population growth. Hence, Women need to be encouraged and empowered through education, employment and training.
High Economic development is the effective medicine to control population in the developing countries like Nepal. This is evident from the experience of advanced countries like japan, singapore, the USA, the UK etc. Income of people will increase with the economic development of nation. This increases the living standard of people.
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