catalogue of pesticide formulation types?
What are the pesticide formulations? pdf file \
A pesticide formulation is a mixture of chemicals which effectively controls a pest. Formulating a pesticide involves processing it to improves its storage, handling, safety, application, or effectiveness. The major formulations of pesticides are as follows:
i. Bait: Mixture of a.i. and food that attracts pests. Usually <5% a.i. Made as meal, pellets, or liquid; Most are solids.
ii. Dry flowable (DF) or Water Dispersible Granules (WDG): Mixture of a.i. and inert material made into small pellets or granules. Forms a suspension in water.
iii. Ear Tag/ Vapour Strips: Solid material with volatile or solid a.i. Slowly releases vapour or releases on skin contact.
iv. Granules (G or GR): Clay, walnut shell, corn cob comined with 2 to 25% a.i.
v. Impregnated Fertilizer: A granular fertilizer containing a little pesticide (usually herbicides).
vi. Pellets (P): Inert material containing a.i. Like granules, but has more uniform share and weight.
vii. Soluble power: Dry powder or granules which dissolve in water to make spray solution. Often >50% a.i.
- Aerosol (A): Usually contain small amounts of a.i. and a petroleum solvent. Two main types:
i. Ready-to-use are under pressure, in small containers, and when nozzle is triggered fine droplets with pesticide are driven though a small hole.
2. Emulsifiable concentrate (EC or E)- Contains a.i., petroleum solvent, and emulsifiers. Pesticide is suspended in spray which is milky coloured
3. Flowable (F)- Finely ground particles suspended in an inert liquid carrier. Forms suspension in spray mix like WP.
4. Solution (SN)-i. comes dissolved in liquid. Forms a solution in spray mix.
Fumignats- These are volatile liquids or solids packaged to release a toxic gas.
Handling of pesticides
Practically all pesticides are toxic to man and animals. Therefore, great care should be taken in storing, using and disposing them. For sage handling of pesticides, the following precautions may be taken:
- Keep the insecticides in closed, properly labelled contains.
- The containers containing pesticides should be stored in dry and cool place away from food and fodder. The placed used for storing pesticides should be out of reach of children and animals.
- Use the pesticides strictly according to the instructions given on the container.
- Use only the recommended does of the pesticides.
- The nozzle and other parts of the sprayer should never be cleaned with the mouth
- Persons handling pesticides should avoid the contact of the pesticides with their skin and inhalation of vapours or mists. They should wear rubber gloves and the face should be covered with a suitable mask.
- The operators should not smoke, eat or drink anything while applying pesticides. While spraying in open fields, the direction of the wind should be kept in mind.
- After spraying pesticides, the operators should wash their hands and face with soap and should take bath and change their cloths. The clothes worn by them during operations should be washed properly.
- The various containers such as buckets, ladder, etc. used for mixing pesticides should be washed properly after the operation.
- A first-aid box should be kept ready while pesticides are being applied.
- In case pesticides are inhaled or consumed accidentally, a doctor should be called at once after giving the first aid. It is very important that the persons handling the pesticides should have a proper knowledge of the first aid to be given in case of any emergency.
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