Class: 12 | Subject: Com. Eng
1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: [5×3=15]
This is the era of science. There is hardly any domain where science and technology do not play significant role. Whether it is on the decence, in the matter of clothing or comfort, in the organization of leisure or past time, modern science and technology contribute to make man’s life more comfortable, effective, fast and pleasant. Science has also entered in to the world of tested through scientific methods. Culture in the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties, especially by education. It brings enlightenment and excellence of taste acquired by aesthetic training.
In this age of rocket and space research, science has made a remarkable contribution to the development of culture in every society and civilization. Although men of letters, who are generally taken to be guardians of culture, tend to look with certain apprehension at the impact of science on cultural values. Modern thinking on the subject differs with this outlook and regards their fears as unfounded. Science and culture are moving closer gradually and is no wedge between these once conflicting disciplines. Science doesn’t spell the ruin of culture: it promotes and harnesses it to modern requirement.
a. Who are the guardians of culture, according to the author?
b. How has modern science contributed to bring change in man’s life?
c. How does the speaker define the domain of science?
d. What is culture and what does it bring?
e. What is the remarkable contribution of science culture? Does it promote or ruin?
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions:
Wages are the reward paid to the workers for his/her labour. The term labour, as used in economics, has a broad meaning. It includes the exertions of independent professional men and women like doctors, lawyers, musicians, painters and even scholars who render service for money. In fact, in economics, labour means all kind of work for which reward is paid. Any type of reward for human exertion. Whether paid by hour, day month or year and paid cash, kind or both is called wages. A wage may be defined as a sum of money paid under contract by an employer to a worker services rendered.
Wages are given different names for example, salaries for the higher staff, pay to the lower staff like clerks and typists, wages for the workers, fees for the persons in independent professions like lawyers and doctors, commission for middle men, brokers etc. and allowance, for special work or for special reasons, eg. travelling allowance, dearness allowance, etc.
a. What are the different types of wages paid to different people?
b. What does the word ‘labour’ refer to in economics?
c. How is commission different from allowance?
d. What do labours get as a reward for their work?
e. Suggest a word or a phrase that would be an appropriate title for the passage.
3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Demand increases or decreases with a fall or rise in prices. This quality of demand by virtue of which it changes is called elasticity of demand. Therefore, elasticity means sensitiveness or responsiveness of demand to the change in price.
This change, sensitiveness or responsiveness, may be small or great. Let’s take the case of salt, even a considerable fall in its price may not include much extension in its demand. On the other hand, a slight fall in the price of oranges may cause considerable increase in their demand. That is why, the demand of salt is inelastic and the demand for oranges is elastic. The demand is elastic when with a small change in price, there is a great change in demand, it is inelastic or less elastic when even a great change in price includes only a slight change in demand.
a. What is elasticity of demand?
b. When does the demand for things become elastic?
c. Why is the demand for salt inelastic?
d. Why is the demand for oranges elastic?
e. Suggest a word or a phrase which would be an appropriate title for the passage.
4. Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
In order to be healthy it is important to have balanced diet in other words, food that contains something from each of the three main groups of food. These groups are protein, carbohydrate and fat.
Proteins are very important for building our bodies; they help us to build new cells as old one dies. Meat and dairy products are major sources of protein, but not the only ones we can also get proteins from fish, eggs and beans.
Carbohydrate and fat are important to enable us to store energy they provide fuel for the body. Carbohydrates are found in sugar, and in cereals such as rice, maize and wheat. Fats are found in vegetable oil, in butter and in nuts.
Our body also needs minerals such as iron and calcium, and vitamins. Fish, vegetables and milk contain most of the minerals we nee. Vitamins are found in fresh vegetables and fruits.
a. What are the three main groups of food ideally needed for balanced diet?
b. Mention the major sources of minerals. Which food items do most of the minerals contains?
c. What are the sources of protein and how do they help in building human bodies?
d. How do carbohydrate and fat help the body? What are their major sources?
e. Suggest a suitable title to the passage.