Evolution of human (8 marks for NEB exam questions )

Ancient human ancestor

The fossils of Ranapithecus, sivapithecus, and Australopithecus are considered as the ancient human fossils. These fossils were supposed to be originated from a common ancestor of both apes and man i.e (hominoids)

  1. Dryopithecus- They existed about 25 million years ago. Its fossil discovered from Asia and Africa. It has semi erect posture and hand and legs of equal size.

 

  1. Ranapithecus
    • It is the earliest known direct ancestors of man which existed about 14 million years ago.
    • Its fossil is also recorded from shivalik hill in India and lake of victory in Australia.
  • Its fossil is also recorded from dang valley of Nepal
  • They were partially erect with small canine teeth.
  • They were arboreal having men like feeding habit

 

  1. Sivapithecus

Its fossil were similar to that of ramapithecus which existed about 10 million years ago. Their fossils were recorded from shivalik.

 

  1. Australopithecus-

–It is the human like from which existed about 5 million years ago in dry land of Africa

— They weigh about 40-50 kg and were about 3.5 to 5 feet tall.

— The brain capacity or (cranial capacity) is 600 cc

— They used weapons of bones

— They walked erect and had long sized canine and incisors teeth which help in tearing

— Fossil record suggest that Australopithecus has 2 species i.e Australopithecus  Africanus  and Australopithecus robustus.   Australopithecus robstus remain unchanged and became extinct while Australopithecus Africanus continued to change and evolved to form modern man.

 

From Human ancestors till modern man (Modern human ancestors)(8 marks) long

The earliest ancestors belonging to class to genus”homo” are considered as modern human ancestors. A number of species belonging to genus “homo”have been recognized. They are-

  1. Homo habilis- It was named by famous anthropologist Louis leakey.

Characters-

  1. It existed about 2 million years ago. Its fossil was recorded from east Africa.
  2. It was about 4.5 feet tall, walked erect and weighed about 40-50 kg.
  3. They were omnivorous and lived community life in caves.
  4. The cranial capacity was 760 cc
  5. They made sharp tools of stones and used them for hunting and defense. (for 1 marks)

 

  1. Homo erectus- The fossils of homo erectus (erect man) existed about 1.7 million years ago. Two similar fossil were recorded from java and peking. The fossil recorded from java was named as java man and those recorded form peking was named as peking man.

 

  1. Java man-  Its fossil was discovered by dubois in 1891 from eastern java. Characters

 

  1. It existed about 50 k years ago.
  2. Its cranial capacity was about 900 cc
  3. IT was about 5 feet tall and weighed nearly 70 kg
  4. Prominent chin was absent but eye brow ridges were pressed.
  5. They used fire for hunting of large animals.
  6. They used rudimentary language.

 

  1. Peking man Its fossil was recorded by w.c pei from caves near peking in china.

Characters

  • Its cranial capacity is about 1075 cc
  • It has underdeveloped chin but developed eye ridges.

 

  1. Neanderthal man – it is supposed to be primitive form of homo sapiens. Its fossil were discovered from Neanderthal valley of Germany. It lived about 40 k years ago. And flourished in Europe Asia and Africa.

Characters

  1. It resemble modern man and were about 5 feet tall
  2. Its cranial capacity was almost similar to modern man i.e 1415 cc
  3. They make tools for hunting and defense
  4. They used skin of animals for clothing
  5. They were capable of communication and primitive type of social life
  6. They made tradition of burry the dead bodies with ceremony

 

  1. Cro m agnon man – it is earlier form of homo sapiens that existed about 34k years ago . It was recorded by Gregor from cro-magnon rocks of France.

 

Characters-

  1. They resemble modern man in size and appearance.
  2. Its cranial capacity is about 1600 cc
  3. They were about 5 feet tall
  4. They were great hunters and used stone tools weapons and arrow
  5. They were cave dwellers and left behind beautiful pictures of animals on the cave wall
  6. They used skin for clothing and made ornaments of elephant’s trunks, stones and bones.
  7. They didn’t know about agriculture, domestication and socialization.

 

Modern Man 

The modern man present today began its expansion about 10k years ago ,after the glacier period, It is spread all over the globe and became a dominant species.

Characters-

  1. It changed from cave dwelling hunting life to crop relising life
  2. It has cranial capacity of about 1450 cc
  3. They have erect posture and bi-pedalism
  4. Language, expressions, ability to learn improved.
  5. They domesticated animals and learned to plant crops.
  6. Social and cultural awareness developed.

IF you also want to read it on wikipedia read it here == >>evolution to human life wiki

In contrary, Modern man migrated in 3 directions. 1st groups migrated to west and change into present day white race. 2nd group migrated to east and changed into present day Mongolian race .  3rd group migrated to south and changed into present day Negroid race.

 

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