Chickpea/ Gram/ Bengal Ggram (Circle arietinum)
Chick pea is an important leguminous crop. It is used in various form like pulses, flour, whole grain, green grain, and tender foliage as vegetable. It is a nutritious item in human and animal diets. It contains about 17% protein, 5.3% fat, 60.9% carbohydrates, 0.3% minerals and 9.8% water. Chickpea has nodules in root containing Rhizobium bacteria which fixes nitrogen from environment.
Chickpea is believed to be originated from South Eastern Europe. It is believed that it was introduced in Indian sub- continent at the first. India alone contributes about 73% of worlds production. It is mainly concentrated in Terai region in Nepal.
- It can be grown in wide varieties of soil ranging from light sandy soil to heavy clay soil
- Well drained sandy loam to deep loam soils of medium fertility are considered ideal for its cultivation.
Chickpea is winter season crop. In general it is grown under rain fed condition. It can also be grown in irrigated condition. It can not resist severe cold and frost. Chickpea needs C for its growth and development. However the optimum temperature for flowing ranges between C. Long day condition is essential foe flowering.
- As a sole crop, chickpea is generally grown as rain fed crop after the harvesting of rice.
- It is an important component of rice and maize based cropping patterns.
The most common cropping patterns with chickpea are as follows-
a. Inner Terai and Terai-
Rice-Chickpea plus Mustard.
Maize-Chickpea plus Mustard.
b. Valley and River basin of hills-
Rice-Chickpea plus Wheat.
Maize Plus Soyabean-Chickpea
Mize-Chickpea plus Barley.
- Land should be ploughed one to two time as deep as 25-30 cm and well leveled.
- All the weeds and stubbles should be removed.
- The land should be well leveled by planking to conserved the available moisture for better germination.
Manure and fertilizers
Chickpea is a leguminous crop so it needs less amount of chemical fertilizers if 10-15 mt of well decomposed organic manure can be applied. The organic manure should be applied 10-15 days prior of sowing. For the higher yield 20kg N, 30-40kg P, and 30-40kg K per hectare are recommended. It can be corrected by spraying zinc @10kg zinc sulphate dissolved in 205-300 litres per hectare.
|Name of cultivar||Duration||Yield (mt)/ ha||Recommended region|
|Dhanusa||144||1.8||Terai and Inner Terai|
|Radh||142||1.6||Dry area of Terai andrain fed area|
|Sita||140||1.5||Dry area of Terai andrain fed area|
|Koseli||154||1.6||Western Terai and Inner Terai|
|Kalika||152||1.4||Western, Mid and, Inner Terai|
|Tara||135||1.4||Terai, and Riverbasin of Mid-hill|
Use of Inoculums
If chickpea is cultivated for the first time then the seed should be treated with Rhizobium inculums which helps to increase the numbers of nodules in roots and hasten the nitrogen fixation activities from the environment.
Method of Inoculation
- Prepare 10% solution of sugar an deep the seed in solution. Add the recommended does of inoculums and mix properly.
- Dry the seed in shade and plant as early as possible since the exposure of seed to sun light destroy the Rhizobium bacteria.
Time of planting
Mid October-Mid November is ideal period for sowing in Terai and Inner Terai region of Nepal.
Method of sowing may vary with level of soil moisture. In general seeds are drilled on flatbed. Broadcasting of seed is done in case of traditional farming system. In dry area it is advisable to plant chickpea in furrow behind the plough or by using a seed drill machine which helps to conserve the available moisture. Immediately after the planting is over, the land should be well leveled pressed by planking which helps in conserving the moisture.
- Amount of seed required per unit area depends on size of seed, germination capacity of seed, and inherent moisture condition of soil as well as method of planting.
- Small seeded cultivars-40-50 kg/ha
- Medium seeded cultivars-50-60- kg/ha
- Large seeded cultivars-80-90 kg/ha
- Weeds seriously compete with chickpea for light, moisture, and nutrients. They also serve as a shelter for pathogens and insects and pests.
- In general two weeding are advisable on at 60-65 days after sowing.
In generally chickpea is grown under rain fed condition. However enough soil moisture is essential for early germination and uniform crop growth. It is advisable to give pre-planting irrigation if the soil is to dry for planting. At least two irrigation are necessary first during flowering and second one at pod formation stage.
Harvesting and threshing
During ripening of chickpea, the leaves are turned in to reddish brown in colour and starts shading. The pods are dry and brown in colour when thy are ready for harvesting. The ripped crop should be harvested with a sharp sickle close to ground. The harvested crop then sun dried for 3-4 days and threshed either by thresher or by trading bullocks or a tractor.
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