Different farm tools and equipment and their functions – Agricultural Science
Farm equipment and tool
- i) Tillage equipment
- ii) Seeding and planting equipment
- iii) Intercultural equipment
- iv) Irrigation equipment
- iv) Harvesting and threshing equipment
i) Tillage equipment: Tillage is a physical manipulation of soil in order to get the desirable condition of the seedbed for seed sowing and have desirable growth of the plant. There are two types of tillage:-
a) Primary Tillage equipment: It is defined as the opening of the soil in any barren land with the help of heavy farm equipment and tools such as moldboard plow (M.B.), leveler, country plow, disc plow, Scrapper, Puddler, Cage wheel, Spades.
b) Secondary Tillage equipment: These are the tillage equipment which is used to make the soil more friable, and lighter after the primary tillage. The secondary equipment is lighter in nature such as-disc harrow, blade harrow, spike tooth harrow, spring harrow, chain harrow etc.
ii) Seeding and planting equipment: These are implements used for sowing or planting of crops. Depending upon the method of sowing, spacing, and use of propagation material, the selection of equipment also varies according. The seeding and planting equipment is divided into following types:
Seed drill is a machine which is used for placing seed in continuous flow at a uniform rate and control the depth with or without covering the soil. The seed drill machine which is equipped with fertilizers dropping arrangements also is called seed cum fertilizer.
b. Planter: Different type of planter has been introduced for agricultural use. The planter is either bullock is drawn, tractor-drawn or manual type
- Potato Planter: This equipment is either automatic or semi-automatic. It is designed to cover 1-4 rows of planting at a Potato planter consist of the hopper, metering device to adjust row to row and plant to plant distance, furrow opening or covering device and ridge maker in a single unit.
- Sugarcane planter: It is also designed as automatic or semi-automatic implements which can perform the activities like the opening of the furrow, placing of sugarcane set, covering of sets at a time.
- Rice transplanter: The rice planter is of two types:
a. Manual transplanter
With the help of rice planter, the uniform depth and distance of seedlings can be maintained. The manual rice planter can cover 3-4 hectare of land per day, while the self-propelled transplanting machine has a field capacity of transplanting 15-20 hectare per day.
iii) Intercultural equipment: The loss of grain to unchecked weed growth ranges as high as 20-60%. Weed control in combination of mechanical as well as chemical weeding has proved more economical for effective weed control. Khurpi and Kutto are most versatile hand-hoe for removal of weeds, but it takes 300-700 man-hr to cover a hectare of land. Use of long handle wheel hoe and peg-type weeders reduces this weeding time to 100-125 hr. Bullock drawn weeders and cultivators are also used for control of weeds.
iv) Irrigation equipment: Varieties of irrigation implements are used for irrigation depending on the financing ability of the farm operator and suitability of the implement according to sources of water. In general centrifugal pump, submersible pump, sprinkler, drip irrigation etc are used for irrigation purpose.
v) Harvesting and threshing equipment:
a. Mower: It is a machine used to cut herbage crop or grasses. The mower may be power operated, manual operated or animal is drawn.
b. Reaper: It is a machine used to harvest cereals crops at ground level. These are either power tiller operated or tractor operated. The field capacity of tractor operated reaper ranges 0.2-0.4 ha per hour.
c. Threshing machine: It is a machine used to detach the grains from the harvested crop and separate clean threshed grain from the chaff without damaging the grain. Threshers are either power operated, paddle operated or animal operated. A thresher has following parts:
- Feeding units
- Threshing unit
- Cleaning unit
- Handling unit
Types of thresher
i. Wheat Thresher
ii. Paddy Thresher
iii. Legume Thresher
d. Combined harvester: It is a machine designed for harvesting, separating, cleaning and collection of grains when it moves over the land.
List of the other Farm types of machinery
- Tractor: The first machinery needed for the farmer is a tractor. This vehicle is needed for drawing purpose in the field for the pushing and pulling. Tractor can be used for other various purposes like carrying and delivering heavy loads at slow speed but with lots of power.
- Harvester: After the crops get time to harvest then it takes to much time if it is done by human hands it takes time money also but harvester vehicle done this works in very few time. Its giant and harvest all the crops faster and more effectively.
- Sprayer: This vehicle is very important for the crops of your its like human doctor haha. This vehicle easily sprays those chemicals which save your crops from different harmful insects. IT may be any kind small to big giant one it can be varied on a different size.
Also, Read from Grade XII science
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