Different farm tools and equipment and their functions – Agricultural Science
Farm equipments and tool
- i) Tillage equipment
- ii) Seeding and planting equipment
- iii) Intercultural equipment
- iv) Irrigation equipment
- iv) Harvesting and threshing equipment
i) Tillage equipment: Tillage is physical manipulation of soil in order to get desirable condition of the seed bed for seed sowing and have desirable growth of plant. There are two types of tillage:-
a) Primary Tillage equipment: It is defined as the opening of the soil in any barren land with the help of heavy farm equipments and tools such as moldboard plough (M.B.), leveler, country plough, disc plough, Scrapper, Puddler, Cage wheel, Spades.
b) Secondary Tillage equipment: These are the tillage equipment which is used to make soil more friable, and lighter after the primary tillage. The secondary equipments are lighter in nature such as-disc harrow, blade harrow, spike tooth harrow, spring harrow, chain harrow etc.
ii) Seeding and planting equipments: These are implements used for sowing or planting of crops. Depending up on the method of sowing, spacing, and use of propagation material, the selection of equipment also varies according. The seeding and planting equipment are divided into following types:
a. Seed driller: Seed drill is a machine which is used for placing seed in continuous flow at uniform rate and control the depth with or without covering the soil. The seed drill machine which is equipped with fertilizers dropping arrangements also is called seed cum fertilizer.
b. Planter: Different type of planter has been introduced for agricultural use. Planter are either bullock drawn, tractor drawn or manual type
- Potato Planter: This equipment is either automatic or semi automatic. It is designed to cover 1-4 rows of planting at a Potato planter consist of hopper, metering device to adjust row to row and plant to plant distance, furrow opening or covering device and ridge maker in a single unit.
- Sugarcane planter: It is also designed as automatic or semi automatic implements which can perform the activities like opening of furrow, placing of sugarcane set, covering of sets at a time.
- Rice trans planter: The rice planter are of two types:
a. Manual transplanter
b. Self propelled
With the help of rice planter the uniform depth and distance of seedlings can be maintained. The manual rice planter can cover 3-4 hectare of land per day, while self propelled transplanting machine have a field capacity of transplanting 15-20 hectare per day.
iii) Intercultural equipment: The loss of grain to unchecked weed growth ranges as high as 20-60%. Weed control in combination of mechanical as well as chemical weeding have proved more economical for effective weed control. Khurpi and Kutto are most versatile hand-hoe for removal of weeds, but it takes 300-700 man-hr to cover a hectare of land. Use of long handle wheel hoe and peg-type weedeers reduces this weeding time to 100-125 hr. Bullock drawn weeders and cultivators are also used for control of weeds.
iv) Irrigation equipment: Varieties of irrigation implements are used for irrigation depending on the financing ability of the farm operator and suitability of the implement according to sources of water. In general centrifugal pump, submersible pump, sprinkler, drip irrigation etc are used for irrigation purpose.
v) Harvesting and threshing equipment:
a. Mower: It is a machine used to cut herbage crop or grasses. Mower may be power operated, manual operated or animal drawn.
b. Reaper: It is a machine use to harvest cereals crops at ground level. These are either power tiller operated or tractor operated. The field capacity of tractor operated reaper ranges 0.2-0.4 ha per hour.
c. Threshing machine: It is a machine used to detach the grains from the harvested crop and separate clean threshed grain from chaff without damaging the grain. Threshers are either power operated, paddle operated or animal operated. A thresher has following parts:
- Feeding units
- Threshing unit
- Cleaning unit
- Handling unit
Types of thresher
i. Wheat Thresher
ii. Paddy Thresher
iii. Legume Thresher
iv. Multi crop Thresher
d. Combined harvester: It is a machine designed for harvesting, separating, cleaning and collection of grains when it moves over the land.
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